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2012 IEDM postdeadline paper
2012 CLEO Plenary talk
2012 IEEE Comm. Mag., Silicon Nanophotonics Beyond 100G
2011 IBM R&D Journal: Technologies for Exascale systems
2010 SEMICON Talk: CMOS Nanophotonics for Exascale
2008 ECOC Tutorial: On-Chip Si Nanophotonics
Silicon Integrated Nanophotonics Technology: from the Lab to the Fab
On December 10, 2012 IBM announced a breakthrough optical communication technology which has been verified in a manufacturing environment.
The technology – called “silicon nanophotonics” – uses light instead of electrical signals to transfer information for future computing systems, thus allowing large volumes of data to be moved fast between computer chips in servers, large data-centers, and supercomputers via pulses of light.
The technology breakthrough allows the integration of different optical components side-by-side with electrical circuits on a single silicon chip, for the first time, in standard 90nm semiconductor fabrication. The new features of the technology include a variety of silicon nanophotonics components, such as modulators, germanium photodetectors and ultra-compact wavelength-division multiplexers to be integrated with high-performance analog and digital CMOS circuitry.
The use of a standard chip manufacturing process will alleviate high cost of traditional interconnects. Single-chip optical communications transceivers can now be manufactured in a standard CMOS foundry, rather than assembled from multiple parts made with expensive compound semiconductor technology.
“Among a number of CMOS technology nodes available at IBM, we have chosen the 90nm technology node as a base for integrating silicon nanophotonics because it will meet the performance requirements for optical communications for the next decade, and at the desired low cost,” said Dr. Yurii A. Vlasov , Manager of the Silicon Nanophotonics Project at IBM Research.
Furthermore, dense integration of optical circuits capable of transmitting and receiving at high data rates will solve the limitations of congested data traffic in current interconnects. IBM’s CMOS nanophotonics technology demonstrates transceivers to exceed the 25Gbps data rate. In addition, the technology is capable of feeding a number of parallel optical data streams into a single fiber by utilizing compact on-chip wavelength-division multiplexing devices. The ability to multiplex large data streams at high data rates will allow future scaling of optical communications capable of delivering terabytes of data between distant parts of computer systems.
Cross-sectional view of an IBM Silicon Nanophotonics chip combining optical and electrical circuits
An IBM 90nm Silicon Integrated Nanophotonics technology is capable of integrating a photodetector (red feature on the left side of the cube) and modulator (blue feature on the right side of the cube) fabricated side-by-side with silicon transistors ( red sparks on the far right of the cube). Silicon Nanophotonics circuits and silicon transistors are interconnected with nine levels of yellow metal wires.
Information super highways inside an IBM Silicon Nanophotonics chip.
Angled view of a portion of an IBM chip showing blue optical waveguides transmitting high-speed optical signals and yellow copper wires carrying high-speed electrical signals. IBM Silicon Nanophotonics technology is capable of integrating optical and electrical circuits side-by-side on the same chip.