Robert J. (Bob) Schloss  Robert J. (Bob) Schloss photo       

contact information

Senior Technical Staff Member: Education and Cognitive Sciences
Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY USA


Professional Associations

Professional Associations:  ACM  |  IEEE Computer Society

  Work: Home:
  IBM T.J. Watson Research Center 151 Holbrook Lane
  P.O. Box 218 Briarcliff, NY 10510
  Yorktown Heights, NY 10598  
  1-914-945-3343 1-914-941-4679  


       Married   5'10"   168 pounds   Excellent health   Age 61

position Senior Technical Staff Member
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center
education Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut 1969 to 1973
B.A. degree, cum laude, in June 1973 in Computer Science and Mathematics with additional concentration in Economics. Course work for M.A. in Computer Science was completed under Professor Alan Perlis (before Yale's Department of Computer Science had been authorized to grant Masters Degrees).
professional recognition IEEE Senior Member - 1999
ACM Senior Member - 2007
experience International Business Machines
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

I am continuing my work on a Northwest Smart Grid Test Bed project in collaboration with Battelle Memorial Research and 12 Utilities, where we are looking at the middleware and programming model that can support dynamic pricing and allocation of power. This is the second year of a 5-year project that will involve power distribution in 5 states. See 2-page PDF overview of the Northwest Smart Grid Test Bed project.

I initiated the Smarter Cities Reference Semantic Model effort across IBM Research, IBM Industry Solutions Development, and IBM Emerging Technology Standards. Our initial results in using OWL and RDF schema to describe the logical model for data, processes and service interfaces implemented with relational databases, XML, WSDL and event processing should be ready to report towards the end of this year. The numerous domains involved in municipal operations has required that we spend extensive time formalizing the use-cases and scenarios, and I have been working on the ones related to the public safety domain.

The IBM Research team I manage has exploratory technology blending XQuery processing with Apache HaDoop, as well as exploratory technology to construct compilers using Higher-Order Rewriting specification of the transformations of the program's intermediate language, which we now expect will be able to generate JIT compilers for some Appliance offerings by IBM. We are now explicitly addressing scalable processing of numerous kinds of semi-structured data, moving beyond our great accomplishments with XML and XML declarative languages. Early technical results are being shared at conferences and workshops by my colleagues Kristoffer Rose and Jerome Simeon.


I am working on a Northwest Smart Grid Test Bed project in collaboration with Battelle Memorial Research and 12 Utilities, where we are looking at the middleware and programming model that can support dynamic pricing and allocation of power. This is the first year of a 5-year project that will involve power distribution in 5 states. I am mentoring an intern from Lehman College, Yina Mercado-Martinez. See 2-page PDF overview of the Northwest Smart Grid Test Bed project.

I am also working on aspects of the framework for Software Coordination in Smarter Cities. Both of these are part of IBM's Smarter Planet Green and Beyond Smarter Energy initiative.

I continue my role as a mentor for rising software engineers and Research Staff members within IBM's labs in China, India, and New York.

I am in discussions with IBM customers about exploiting the Websphere XML Feature Pack. In 2010, the Research team I manage, in collaboration with IBM Software Group, issued a performance-improved version of the Feature Pack, and components of it are now available with IBM's Webphere Process Server and selected Cognos offerings.

2009 I am conducting research related to high-level languages for event handling and SOA control of distributed cyber-physical systems, with a focus on technology for Smart Grid supply-demand balancing, as part of IBM's Smarter Planet Green and Beyond Smarter Energy initiative.
  I am responsibe for collecting scenarios and requirements related to Smarter City cross-agency and multiple resource coordination, optimization and management activities and correlating them with the existing and emerging standards and frameworks for modeling the activities, assets and processes used in a Smarter City. With colleagues, we are turning this into an extensive glossary of city management terms, an ontology of city management activities, and an extensive set of UML models and Service Interfaces and Logical Data Schemas which will represent the IT design for Smarter City coordination, and can be augmented and used to generate software that integrates, using the concepts of Service-Oriented Architecture, various software packages used by different city agencies. Our first publications are anticipated in 2010.
  I am providing management support for advanced XQuery 1.0 support in the Open Beta of the Websphere Application Server XML Feature Pack (see XML FEP info online).
2008 I am conducting research related to federated metadata registry-repositories describing information sources and Web services and including semantic classifiers. This is in support of enterprise architecture, SOA and Governance. I am also looking at how to store relationships and provenance information across repositories. The team I co-lead includes IBM Researchers in the U.S. and China and works in partnership with members of IBM Software Group in the US, Israel and the UK. I am also an active participant in the IBM Academy of Technology study on New Business Value from Green Innovations.

For only the second time in its history, the IBM Research division acknowledged as an Extraordinary Accomplishment technical work related to a new software architecture. I was one of a number of colleagues recognized for contributions to the evolution of standards from XML through Web Services and towards Service-Oriented Architecture.

2007 I received a major BRAVO award for contributions to the DB2 pureXML strategy; and a Research Division Award for contributions to the Global Technology Outlook. I was named an ACM Senior Member. The number of researchers who directly report to me was increased to 9.

I am one of three designers for an ultra-flexible Java framework supporting Virtual XML. The first prototype was released on IBM alphaworks under the name Virtual XML Garden. I co-authored a paper on Virtual-XML for the IBM Systems Journal with Kristoffer Rose and Susan Malaika. I will be presenting this work in the Technology Futures Track at the IBM Information on Demand Conference in October.

I presented briefings to C-Level Executives of Government Regulators regarding XBRL.

I have been an advisor to the Biomimicry Guild and Rocky Mountain Institute during a feasability study of an applied Biomimicry reference resource on the Web for product designers.

I was one of four IBM Researchers that received a prestigious IBM Corporate Award for my work on XML Standards and Implementation.


The work of the department I manage - Scalable XML Infrastructure - expanded to include creation of OWL ontologies and strategies to accelerate reasoning and inferencing with large OWL ontologies and knowledge bases. We also demonstrated a novel strategy for supporting full Xpath as a selection language with the Java SDO API. I was the officially designated mentor for two rising software engineers at two different labs within IBM Research. I presented briefings to C-Level Executives at Financial Services Companies regarding Metadata, Master Data Management, and XBRL.

I played a leading role in a 3-month indepth study of Metadata Opportunities requested by the IBM Technology Team. This study provided the business and technical justification of several very large acquisitions by IBM of software companies working in this space.

I received an IBM Outstanding Innovation Award in support of my work on XML in support of Web Services.


The work of my department on the Formal Semantics of Xpath 2.0 and Xquery 1.0, as part of the W3C XML Query Working Group, advanced through several versions. At the same time, we worked on how to marry a higher-level view of cross-enterprise distributed applications (project name: Symbiotic) with a runtime infrastructure based on Web Services.

I worked with two colleagues to produce Magneto, a very easy to learn and very easy to use data modeling tool for XML. A very successful field test at a Medium sized business was conducted, and a paper on our work was presented by Douglas Lovell at XML 2005. Magneto is based on Eclipse.


I am selected as an IBM Research Division Master Inventor, with responsibility for mentoring other inventors and advising the IP Law department.

I have initiated a line of Research blending the threads of: modeling in ways accessible to domain-experts that ties to requirements, emergent enterprise consistency, and tuning classic modeling approaches, such as UML, to XML, Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures. I continue to successfully advocate specific steps to strengthen the links between EMF and XML Schema, and for improvements in Websphere Studio Application Developer’s XML tooling.

I have expanded my department with the addition of three permanent persons (Research Staff Memember, Software Engineer, Usability Engineer), added a second postDoc, while our department mentored two undergraduate interns. My department did exploratory work on data-driven compiled push streaming transformations; on business rules (including preparing an IBM submission to the OMG); on modeling; and on the modeling needs of the IBM Integrated Supply Chain and Contracts & Negotiations department.

I was a co-author of the report “Metadata: a base for the integrated enterprise” based on a workshop I helped organize for the IBM Academy of Technology; and also contributed a presentation to the Academy of Technology Workshop on Model-Driven and Semantically Described Web Services.

I am building an extended multi-department team including members from Haifa Research Lab’s Programming Languages and Environments and from the Watson Architects Workbench team.

I was a featured speaker at the Innocence in Danger international conference of experts in Berlin focused on protecting youth who use the Internet.


I manage the XML/XSL Transformational Systems group, whose research relates to standards, APIs, and tools related to XSLT, XPATH, XQuery, XSL Formatting Objects and XML Schema.

One of my patents was listed as among IBM’s most valuable patents.

I collaborated in the development of the XML Schema Infoset Model library for Java.

2001 I was invited to serve as one of 5 technologists on a 2-year National Research Council study on Tools and Strategies for Protecting Children who use the Internet with a focus on Pornography and Inappropriate Materials, chaired by former US Attorney General and Governer of Pennsylvania Richard Thornburgh. The study conclusions were presented to the US Congress (which had requested the study), the US Federal Government, and the Media, and documented in a 450-page book issued by the National Academy Press - “Youth, Pornography and the Internet”.
1998 to 2000 IBM Research Division Leader on XML, focusing on data interchange between applications across organizational boundaries. I helped develop the White Paper for the Corporate Technical Committee on how IBM can give our customers value through XML. I have coordinated work at Almaden, Haifa, Tokyo and Watson related to XML, connecting IBM development labs and standards bodies with small projects at Research. I helped organize a corporate XML symposium held in May at Almaden Research Center, and have given talks to more than 300 Researchers about XML. I have assisted Watson, Almaden and Haifa management in assembling a portfolio of projects covering most of the important XML opportunities. I filed a patent related to XML fragments and caching with Philip Yu.

IBM Corporate Technical Leader on RDF, the Resource Description Framework. I co-chaired the World Wide Web Consortium working group on RDF Data Model and Syntax and participate in the W3C's Metadata Coordination Council. RDF is the technical base for Dublin Core bibliographic information, P3P Privacy-respecting Personalization, DCD schemas for XML (proposed to the W3C by IBM and Microsoft), the Summary Markup Language which is the primary persistant data structure used by Grand Central Station, CC/PP and others. I have been an invited presenter of a tutorial at the WWW7 conference, at the Information and Communication workshop of the German Scientific Societies, at ISO workshops on metadata query. I distributed bi-monthly updates on RDF to over 80 interested individuals within IBM and Lotus. (Dublin Core and XML are focus standards areas for the IBM Content Management line-of-business).

I assisted Tohru Mohri (Pervasive Computing Division) and Ron Siletti (Corporate IP) in a detailed analysis of how IBM should try to influence standards related to Pervasive Computing, and have developed a score of application scenarios illustrating the role of data interchange. I have reviewed approaches to data synchronization in enterprise-wide PvC applications.

One of my patents was named among the most valuable IBM patents issued in 1998.

The World Wide Web Consortium made RDF a Recommendation on February 18, 1999 and it now in widespread use within the Dublin Core Metadata projects as well as IBM customer engagements. On March 8, I presented with Ora Lassila of Nokia an all-day tutorial on RDF at the XTech '99 conference. I presented a tutorial on XML Metadata at WebNet 99 in October. I am involved in convergence between MOF/XMI, RDF, and XML Schema language.

IBM Research Division Team Leader on XML, with responsibility for strategy coordination and Software Group Executive Liaison. I provide direction for the IBM-wide XML site on the Intranet, and have been the main source of information for articles in "Think Research" magazine, and Think Technical Web site. I maintain the page for the Watson XML Interest Group website, and convene the bi-monthly seminars for the group. I also supervise Achille Fokoue, a graduate student from Ecole Centrale in Paris, and John Givler in the development of an XML Schema Editor which integrates with repositories of standardized schema components. I am responsible for SKETCH concepts and detailed functional specification. I work closely with the team building XSL tools to realize cross-tool integration. I brief customers on IBM's view of XML opportunities.

I have helped the Quilt, BPF/Coyote and XMI/EDI teams refine their value propositions, structure the description of their technologies, and identify opportunities for technology sharing with other software vendors or for standardization (of Trading Partner Agreements etc.) I am also doing so with the developer of XMLTreeDiff and its patch data stream.

I act as a mentor to colleagues (e.g. effective customer presentations), and am the first contact for scores of Researchers looking for book referrals, web-site referrals, and answers to questions as they first consider XML technologies in their projects.

I am a reviewer for numerous IBM technologies combining XML and Pervasive Computing, such as "Annotation for Transcoding Hints" submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium.

I lead XML Schema language tools development in the Extensible Technologies Department. This work involves modeling the proposed Schema language (in UML), creating Java libraries to parse, represent, emit, analyze, style check (and improve), translate or locate (in repositories) XML Schema documents. These Java libraries are models for the IBM Software Group’s XML tooling, and will be used in tools related to Data Warehouse support with DB2. I supervise a pre-professional co-op intern and a contractor. We identified numerous ambiguities or errors in early Schema specifications. We work closely with groups building on top of Schema, such as the SOAP messaging work.

IBM Research Division Team Leader on XML, focusing on integration of standards being created at OMG (MOF,XMI,UML) and those being created at W3C, IETF, ebXML and MPEG. My 6th patent was issued this year, and my article, “Ten Best Bets for XML Applications” was the featured story on IBM developerWorks portal during April. I chaired the application tools planning workshop at the IBM Java/XML Summit. I am assisting IBM's Software Group with defining a new product line which will be a repository for XML artifacts used by large enterprises and industry groups, and providing input for phase 2 of a multicompany initiative to provide open registries for Web services provided by businesses of all types.

1995 to 1997

I designed a major functional addition to the Wide World Web, described it at HICSS-29 and at IBM's Get Connected Technical Interchange, filed 2 patents on it (and one on electronic scheduling), and was part of the W3C team architecting PICS (the Platform for Internet Content Selection). PICS has been featured in major articles in CACM, Scientific American, PC Week, Wall Street Journal, New York Times, etc. and lauded in major speeches by the Chairman of the FCC, IBM CEO Louis Gerstner, and national political leaders. (In 1996, the 156 member companies of the World Wide Web Consortium made PICS-1.1 an official recommendation).

IBM Corporate Technical Leader on PICS. I led a team implementing PICS content filtering facilities as part of IBM's NetVista Internet Suite for K-12 schools. I acted as advisor to the Raleigh Server groups, Hawthorne's PICS reviewer tool development team, the Iris Associates PICS implementation team, the China Research Lab PICS label bureau development team, and to Hawthorne's SuperProxy group on PICS support and Advertising Substitution by ISPs. In these roles, I provided design assistance, coordination, coaching, and strategic positioning assistance to 9 developers (who program in C, C++, Java and Smalltalk/V) at 5 sites and to 5 managers, coordinate work by contractors and guide IBM's use of PICS in our external content. I conceived 7 research projects in improved human-computer interaction Research. I provided technical and strategic advice to the Information Object family of Research projects at the IBM Haifa Research laboratory. I jumpstarted programmer education in Java for IBM Watson Research. I continued to be an active participant of the W3C's PICS technical committee. I developed standard APIs and interfaces for the use of third party meta-data. I assisted a research team to organize an evaluation of a possible IBM business alliance with the Invention Machine Co. I have prepared highly acclaimed presentations for customers as diverse as KLM Airlines and the Chinese Ministry of Telecommunications.

I provided final consultation for PICS server functionality which was released in March in the ICSS 4.2 product, the first in the industry with this functionality. I provided final consultation for PICS proxy functionality which was released as a product in June. I co-led the next-generation-PICS-labels working group of the W3C, which is adding support to PICS needed for digital signatures and am working with the international digital library community on a standard PICS representation of Dublin Core cataloging information. My software was used to win a joint development agreement between MEI, an ISP in China, and IBM. The IBM Home Page featured PICS and my work in a lead story in March. IBM Research Magazine's story "Labeling the Web" focused on this work. I assisted the IBM Firewall product team relating to address filtering, and developed scenarios on mail gateway filtering and virus scanning. My work on PICS extensibility and 3rd party rating was honored by an IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award.

Analysts like Esther Dyson and prestigious awards like the Bertlesmann Prize have recognized the potential of PICS. I am co-inventor of novel applications for PICS in hierarchies of proxy servers, video filtering, information push. I was granted US Patent 5,706,507. I monitored all structured data standards work including XML and InfoBus. I contributed business scenarios regarding eCommunities to a project in the Niche Networking group.

1990 to 1994 I debriefed the top executives and technologists at the Library of Congress and New England Medical Center to understand ways that information technology could transform their industries. Working with an oncologist from NEMC, I formulated a project in which interactive multimedia home computers could be used by families with children with Leukemia to involve the parents in home care by allowing training, communication with the medical team, and patient monitoring at home. Using Digital Video technology and object-oriented software to build an easy to use interface, I developed early prototypes of many functions, and then implemented the data management and distributed communications portions of the application. I developed content management tools for our special-purpose multimedia authoring application. This is implemented in Smalltalk on OS/2 on a 486 PC platform. I also planned the integration with the hospital information system and the logistics of a field test involving several families and computers in physicians' homes. I supervised two computer programmers who customized an object-oriented database and transaction system, and collaborated with a psychologist and a filmmaker in the development of content accessible to parents under stress. I made recommendations for future PC packaging and novel input capabilities appropriate to in-home and user-under-stress applications. This work was highlighted in Technology Review, January 1994 (Plugged-In Medicine), Business Week, February 21, 1994 (Hospitals Attack A Crippler: Paper), The Economist, March 16, 1994 (The Future of Medicine), and The Boston Herald April 25, 1994 (Computers to link patients, hospital). It was demonstrated in a paper with Linda Tetzlaff and Michelle Kim at CHI 95 on May 9, 1995 in Denver Colorado. CHI is the Conference on Human Factors sponsored by ACM. A patent was granted on the unique scheduling with dynamic conditions function that I developed for this project.
1983 to 1990 I conducted research in register allocation and optimization strategies for optimizing compilers for conventional and Reduced Instruction Set computers; and was a consultant to IBM's Toronto Laboratory Language Center. The result was a 5%-50% reduction in run-time in compute-intensive programs by using our approach. This included work on the compilers for IBM's Risc System/6000 workstation family, as well as architectural work on defining a 64-bit extended architecture, which has become a major marketing advantage for AS/400. I received an IBM Outstanding Technical Achievement Award for this work. My work was later incorporated into the PowerPC architecture by a team from IBM, Motorola and Apple. Processors with this chip powered the Pathfinder lander on Mars as well as the Deep Blue Chess-playing computer and IBM's SP2 supercomputers.
Major Publications
  • Using Standards to enable the transformation to Smarter Cities. J Hogan, J Meegan, R Parmar, V Narayan, R Schloss, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 2011. (IEEExplore)
  • Enabling Integrated City Operations. D Bartlett, W Harthoorn, J Hogan, M Kehoe, R Schloss, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 2011. (IEEExplore)
  • Supporting Ontology-Based Dynamic Property and Classification in WebSphere Metadata Server, S Liu, Y Yang, G Xie, C Wang, F Cao, C Santos, B Schloss, Y Pan, K Shank, J Colgrave, Proceedings of the 7th International Semantic Web Conference, 2008
  • UMRR: Towards an Enterprise-Wide Web of Models, Jing Mei, Guotong Xie, Lei Zhang,Shengping Liu, Bob Schloss, Yue Pan, Yuan Ni, International Semantic Web Conference 2008
  • MDS++: Supporting Ontology-based Dynamic Classification in WebSphere Metadata Server, F Cao, C Dos Santos, B Schloss, Y Pan, K Shank, John Colgrave, et al, International Semantic Web Conference 2008
  • Book: Youth, Pornography and the Internet, National Academies Press, 2002 (study)
  • Virtual-XML: A toolbox and use cases for an XML world view by Kristoffer H Rose, Susan Malaika, and Robert Schloss, IBM Systems Journal, 2006
  • Papers at WWW
  • Novel Business Uses of Independently Created Hyperlinks in the World Wide Web: Basic Mechanism and Examples, at HICSS-29 in 1996
  • Home Health Care Support System Linda Tetzlaff, Michelle Kim, Robert J. Schloss, at CHI 1995
  • Kevin O'Brien, Bill Hay, Joanne Minish, Hartmann Schaffer, Bob Schloss, Arvin Shepherd, and Matthew Zaleski. Advanced compiler technology for the RISC System/6000 architecture.
    In IBM RISC System/6000 Technology. IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, 1990
Recent Patents

System and method for scheduling linked events with fixed and dynamic conditions

  Co-InventorLinda S. Tetzlaff
  Issue DateNovember 25, 1997
  Patent Number5692125

System and method for controlling access to data located on a content server

  Issue DateJanuary 6, 1998
  Patent Number5706507

System, method and computer program for reviewing and creating advisories for data located on a content server

  Issue DateMarch 2, 1999
  Patent Number5878233

Collaborative caching of a requested object by a lower level node as a function of the caching status of the object at a higher level node

  Co-InventorsCharu Chandra Aggarwal, Peter K. Malkin, Philip S. Yu
  Issue DateJuly 13, 1999
  Patent Number5924116

Dynamic push filtering based on information exchanged among nodes in a proxy hierarchy

  Co-InventorsBrent T. Hailpern, Peter K. Malkin, Philip S. Yu
  Issue DateMay 16, 2000
  Patent Number6065058

Apparatus and method for dynamic meta-tagging of compound documents

  Co-InventorsBrent T. Hailpern, Peter K. Malkin, Philip S. Yu
  Issue DateJuly 25, 2000
  Patent Number6094657

Dynamic Modification of Multimedia Content

  Co-InventorsPeter Malkin, Edward Snible, Marc Willebeck-LeMair, Philip Yu
  Issue DateNovember 13, 2001
  Patent Number6317795

Identifying, Processing and Caching Object Fragments in a Web environment

  Co-InventorsPhilip Yu
  Issue DateJune 19, 2001
  Patent Number6249844

Collaborative Server Processing of Content and Meta-Information with Application to Virus Checking in a Server Environment

  Co-InventorsBrent Hailpern, Peter Malkin, Charles Palmer, Steve White, Philip Yu
  Issue DateAugust 14, 2001
  Patent Number6275937

2 Patents Now Under Evaluation at the United States Patent Office

  Co-InventorsGeetika Lakshmanan, Yuri Rabinovich
  Submission DateOctober, 2009
  Patent NumbersTBD

Conference Committees

WWW9 Program Committee (2000)

WWW2002 Program Committee

Invited Conference Keynote Talks Presented

On September 19, 2003, I delivered a keynote talk on "What Technology Can do In Preventing Strangers with Intent to Harm from contacting children on the net", at the International Forum held in Berlin Gegen Kindesmissbrauch im Internet.

Conference Tutorials Presented

XTech 99



personal background and interests

Brought up in New York City. I have done extensive volunteer work with community agencies, including working with hospitalized children, crisis intervention switchboards, and advisor to a teenage youth group. This work has included direct person-to-person aid, as well as organization leadership positions. I have served on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of Family, a multi-purpose grass-roots service organization. I have a deep interest in resource efficiency and environmental sustainability.

My interests include technology's effects on culture, business ecologies and process-based business organization, protection of the natural environment, Judaic studies, financial management and investments, anthropology and economic theory. I read voraciously, love to learn, and enjoy playing the piano and folk dancing. I mentor upcoming Researchers and Software Engineers in the United States, India and in China.

I am a member of the Federation of American Scientists, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, and the Union of Concerned Scientists. I have been featured speaker at university conferences on international security, and on public-affairs radio programs.

I am the father of a twenty-six year-old son, Daniel, a graduate of Oberlin College 2007, and an aspiring cinematographer currently working as Director of Video Production for Oberlin College and a principal in Flying Centipede Productions. He is also the cinematographer. My wife, Emily Sack, was formerly a Family Daycare Consultant on the staff of the Childcare Council of Westchester, and served for 5 years on the council of Interhelp, and she is the immediate-past-chair of the Village of Briarcliff Conservation Advisory Committee.

I love documentary and international and art films, and you can read about this on my blog.